Links to relevant rules
in the US, EU, and
WTO, WIPO and
other related references
Papers, policy briefs and
other case studies
GI in Practice
While the history of protection for geographical indications has its source in international agreements, it is national laws
that currently provide the basic enforcement mechanisms for their protection.
These laws generally provide protection for geographical indications using one of two paradigms - either general
trademark rules (e.g., via certification or collective marks) or specific legal schemes (e.g., for the use of geographical
place names). In addition consumer protection and commercial practice laws also may be relevant.
Examples of these two alternative paradigms are most vividly illustrated by the US and EU protection regimes,
more details on which can be found below. In addition, links are provided to other relevant national laws.